The story of smart Hans

The story of smart Hans

Sometimes, some inadvertent subtle movements that are inadvertently made are only a one-fifth of a millimeter of moving distance, but Hans can use it as a signal to stop tapping.

  At the beginning of the 20th century, a horse named Hans caused a huge sensation.

  The owner of Hans is a retired middle school teacher named William von Osten.

In the eyes of others, Osten is a weirdo.

He is very simple in his daily life, rarely interacts with people, but he likes to deal with horses very much.

In 1901, he bought Hans and began to teach it.

He wants to figure out how much a horse’s thinking ability can be improved and developed through systematic lectures.

  The first skill that Osten taught to Hans was counted by tapping the hoof.

He put a few bottleposts on the table, then he kneels beside Hans, grabs its hooves, and teaches it to tap according to the number of bottles: three bottles are knocked three times, fourThe bottle column knocked four times. At the same time, he also pointed out the number loudly and clearly, just like teaching a child who just learned to count.

Hans shows amazing learning ability.

It didn’t take long for it to count on the hoof itself, and even just read a number out loud or write it on the blackboard, and Hans can count it correctly.

What is even more amazing is that under the guidance of the master, the intelligent Hans has mastered four basic mathematical operations through the training of displacement.

When people present an arithmetic transformation to it, it will use the hoof to surprisingly knock out the exact answer.

Hans also learned to recognize words by tapping the hoof: each letter can be translated into a numeric code, and Hans can use the number of hoots to represent the letter.

  Osten began to perform in public, but not for profit.

When someone asks how much a ticket is, he always answers: “We don’t collect money here, you just need to concentrate on watching it!

In one performance, Bethmann Hollweg, who later became German Chancellor, was one of the audience.

People introduced his name to Hans and read it several times until Hans nodded.

After a quarter of an hour, Hans did not hesitate to slap with his hoof. The audience could easily compare Hans’s “spelling” according to what was hanging in front.

As a result, Hans knocked out “Betmann”, and the other letters were not bad except for the inappropriate h.

The attendees were stunned and then jubilant.

The wise Hans and its owner, Osten, became the subject of extensive coverage in the German media, and the public was able to calculate and the spelled Hans attracted.

But there are also skeptics who think that there may be something tricky in the performance, or something tricky.

  Later, the clever Hans caught the attention of scientific institutions.

People set up a test committee to conduct scientific appraisal of smart Hans.

Members include E. Stumford, a psychology professor at the University of Berlin, and another psychologist, as well as a zoo director and circus manager, a veterinarian and a cavalry officer.

Osten had great confidence in Hans’s intelligence and actively cooperated.

On September 12, 1904, the committee made an identification indicator: no deceptive tricks were found.

  The results of the appraisal made people more confused: Can Hans really make things that people in the past thought the animals could not do?

Do animals really have the ability to think beyond people’s imagination?

Scientists have also had great differences on how to explain the clever Hans problem.

Biologist Hecker thinks that Hans does have the ability to think, and the psychologists represented by Professor Sturmford hold the opposite view. They don’t think that smart Hans has real thinking ability.

So, how will the skeptics explain the unquestionable achievements of this horse?

  The skeptics set up a second “Hans Committee” and they wanted to conduct a more in-depth investigation to see what was going on.

In the new survey, people found that if the person present was not aware of the answer when questioning the horse, Hans would immediately become confused, neither counting nor calculating, let alone clarifying the word.It is.
  If you want to let Osten know the wrong answer, then in this case, smart Hans always prompts the wrong answer.

  It seems that Hans will not calculate at all.

The truth seems to be that when Osten knew the correct answer, he gave Hans some hints.But Osten explicitly denied that he had helped his horse in this way.

For an inadvertent bystander, it is really difficult to pruning what Osten did.

Oscar Pfungster, a young researcher at the Berlin Institute of Psychology, reveals the mystery.

He noticed that when the horse began to count, Osten would make an almost imperceptible nod, and when Hans stepped on the correct count, he would tilt his head slightly.

The movements he did were quite careless, but Ma Chacha got the signal.

For example, if you let the horse count 7, it starts to pat with the hoof. When it is enough, Osten sends a tiny signal telling it that it is enough, it stops.

Hans is very sensitive, even if Osten’s eyebrows are slightly picked, even the tiny expansion of his nostrils is enough to get the correct answer.

Not only that, Hans will get clues to the correct answer through the “subconscious signal” of the surrounding viewers.

For example, whenever Hans’s hoof hits the right number of times, the audience will make some subconscious reactions of “sudden relaxation.”

Sometimes, some inadvertent subtle movements that are inadvertently made are only a one-fifth of a millimeter of moving distance, but Hans can use it as a signal to stop tapping.
Interestingly, Pvonst himself also involuntarily provided clues to the horse.

Therefore, if he verifies that Hans finds the answer to the question through the clues provided by the vision, Pvonster asks the questioner to ask questions outside the horse’s field of vision, such as the paragraph.

As a result, Hans lost its “computing power.”

  In fact, the truth of the matter is that Osten did not deliberately deceive, and Hans did indeed type the correct answer to the arithmetic problem, but Hans did not have the ability to calculate.

It has another special ability – keen insight, which allows it to get subtle hints from a wide variety of people to get the right results.

  The mystery was solved, and the problem of clever Hans, which caused perfusion to everyone, was finally overwhelmed.

The way of scientific thinking has overcome human credulity and prejudice.

The edible wild vegetables in the spring are harvested at the time.

The edible wild vegetables in the spring are harvested at the time.

● Purslane is sour, cold, heat and dampness, cooling blood and detoxification.

For bacterial dysentery, acute pneumonia, acute appendicitis, mastitis, hemorrhoids bleeding.

External treatment of hemorrhoids, eczema, herpes zoster and so on.

Modern pharmacological research has its antibacterial effect, inhibiting the interference of Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella typhimurium, and inhibiting common pathogenic skin ulcers.

●Sweet taste is warm, sputum, warm, has the effect of phlegm and dampness, hemostasis and pain relief, and its systemic effect. For example, root bark can be used to prevent diseases, enteritis, urinary tract infection, blood in the stool, blood stasis, vaginal discharge, rheumatismLeg pain and other evidence; leaves and shoots can be used for ulcer disease; fruit can be used for stomach, duodenal ulcer, chronic gastritis and so on.

● Amaranth is sweet, flat, with cooling blood to stop bleeding, clearing heat and diuretic effect, can be used for renal tuberculosis, blood, postpartum uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, tuberculosis hemoptysis, hypertension, cold fever, nephritis edema, urinary calculi, enteritisWait.
With modern pharmacological research, leek contains amaranth acid, which has a hemostatic effect.

● bitter cabbage bitter vegetable, also known as bitter diced vegetable, bitter taste, cold, with heat and detoxification, rupture and blood circulation, drainage effect, can be used for appendicitis, abdominal abscess, enteritis, abscess, acute, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, lung heat cough, tuberculosis, vomiting blood.

External treatment of bruises, sores, swelling, pain, scrotal eczema and so on.

Note on eating wild vegetables 1.

Do not know the wild vegetables do not eat, determine whether it is toxic before eating, some wild plants contain highly toxic, light after eating, chest tightness, bloating, vomiting, severe life can be life-threatening;

Due to the pollution of the growing environment, the wild vegetables grown near the factory, garbage dumps, and polluted rivers often contain toxins, which are unfit for human consumption.


The characteristics of bitter wild vegetables are mostly cold and cold, and have the effect of detoxification and smoldering, but excessive consumption can harm the spleen and stomach. Therefore, people with spleen and stomach deficiency should not be over-consumed.

Chrysanthemum top ten health coup

Chrysanthemum top ten health coup

In the golden autumn, the splendid chrysanthemums bloom in abundance, adding a charming charm to nature.

Chrysanthemum has both ornamental value and excellent medicine and food, and has good health care value.

  Chrysanthemum wine: It is made from chrysanthemum plus glutinous rice and koji. It is called “longevity wine” in ancient times. Its taste is cool and sweet, and it has the functions of nourishing the liver, eyesight, brain and delaying aging.

  Chrysanthemum porridge: the chrysanthemum and the previous rice are cooked together to make the porridge, refreshing, clearing the heart, removing trouble, pleasing to the eye, and drying.

  Chrysanthemum tea: brewing tea with chrysanthemum, smells aromatic, can cool off, heat, hurricane, throat, eye care, hangover.

  Chrysanthemum cake: Mix the chrysanthemum in the rice paste, steam it into a cake, or use the mung bean powder and chrysanthemum to make a cake, which has a therapeutic effect of cooling and removing fire.

  Chrysanthemum Crisp: Chrysanthemum and pork, fried with snake meat or with fish and chicken, “Chrysanthemum meat slices”, good in the sputum, but not greasy, clear and refreshing, can be used for the treatment of dizziness, wind and heat disturbance.
  Chrysanthemum 羹: Boil the chrysanthemum with white fungus or lotus seeds or steamed into a foraging food, add rock sugar, can go to the heat, benefit the five internal organs, cure dizziness and other symptoms.

  Chrysanthemum cream: fry the fresh chrysanthemum with water, filter the juice and concentrate it, and mix it into the refined honey to make a paste. It has the effect of evacuating the wind, clearing the heat and improving the eyesight.

  Chrysanthemum pillow: The chrysanthemum petals are dried in the shade and are included in the pillow. They have better curative effect on high blood pressure, dizziness, insomnia and red eyes.

  Chrysanthemum knee pads: Chrysanthemum, Chen Ai Ye broken into coarse, placed in a gauze bag, implanted knee pads, can be dehumidified by hurricane, swelling and pain, treatment of arthritis and other arthritis.

  Chrysanthemum aroma: there is a wind, the function of the liver, smelling a cold, headache has an auxiliary treatment.

Weapons: husband will make love, wife will sleep fast

Weapons: husband will make love, wife will sleep fast

Recently, an article in the media entitled “Common Sexual Life, Women Will Lose Sleep” has caused curiosity among married colleagues in my office.

After reading the article, everyone joked to each other: “No wonder your wife often suffers from insomnia. It turned out to be the reason why you are incompetent!

“Although it is a joke, it does make sense.

  Think about myself, once through the misunderstanding of understanding, I also walked through a tortuous journey from incompetence to competent.

  My wife’s pressure is particularly large. My wife is the director of a large-scale enterprise planning department, mainly engaged in corporate image promotion and planning.

  The wife said that the current competition of enterprises is more about the competition of corporate culture and brand building. Therefore, both the CEOs of the enterprises and the ordinary employees of the enterprises have high hopes for their department.

  As a result, his wife’s pressure is particularly great.

Especially before every major event, she always turned over and over in bed, and it was difficult to sleep.

  At first, I thought that treating my wife’s insomnia was to create a quiet rest environment for her.

  So, once I found out that my wife was turning around on the bed and it was difficult to fall asleep, I quietly got up and went to sleep in my son’s room (the son went to school in the field).

But as a result, I found that doing so didn’t work. On the contrary, my wife’s insomnia was even worse.

  The husband will have sex, what if the wife sleeps fast?

I suddenly think that happy sex can cure insomnia.

Why not use good sex to drive away the pressure in his wife’s heart and let her sleep beautifully!

  After that, as long as my wife is lying on the bed because of her work, her eyes are fixed on the ceiling and it is difficult to fall asleep. I will take my wife in my arms, use my caress, kiss, muttering love.So that the wife temporarily forgets the troubles of the work, and then, with the skill of making love, send the wife to the cloud.

  This is really effective.

  ”The husband will make love and the wife will sleep fast.

“I want to use my successful experience in treating my wife’s insomnia to tell my friends, when your loved one is insomnia for some reason, why don’t you try the “passionate sex” method?

  Doing love is not up to the climax, women are prone to insomnia, but I also want to explain: “making love” to treat insomnia is usually a general water, to do, you must let your wife reach orgasm.

  Only in this way can we create good conditions for sleep.

Otherwise, half-time love can only increase the insomnia of the wife.

  This is because there is a gap in time between male and female sexual desire, orgasm and libido.

Male sexual desire can be quickly stimulated, and can reach orgasm quickly during the whole sexual intercourse, and sexual desire can quickly subside after sexual orgasm.

  Therefore, once a male reaches orgasm (even after masturbation), he can quickly fall asleep.

  Women are different.

Women’s sexual desires must have an implanted initiation process, and the “platform” period is also distorted until the orgasm is reached, and the decline of sexual desire is slow, so women are more difficult to achieve perfect harmony than men in sexual intercourse, so that womenIt is easy to lose sleep.

  How to make sex help sleep research, found that in a one-time life, women consume only 1/3 of the physical strength of men, so how to let men and women fully relax in this common process, promote sleep, it becomes aproblem.

  In addition, the couple’s sleeping position is also very particular about it.

  American sex expert Tanya suggested that after sex, the husband can take her from the back of her wife to sleep, so that the two sides can fully contact the body without oppressing the heart, so that the woman can have the greatest sense of security, which is conducive to promoting the marital relationship and the quality of sleep.

  There are also some sex experts who recommend naked sleep. They think that the human body is more relaxed, and it is also beneficial to enhance the body’s immunity and replace fatigue.

  With sleep to maintain strong sexual ability, the best condition is to maintain 7-8 hours of sleep time.

  Tips: The three kinds of sorrowful life of magical sex treatment for women have unexpected relief and inhibition in many cases.

In addition to insomnia, female sex can treat the following kinds of illnesses: reduce the 5-7 replacement of women in premenstrual syndrome before menstruation, and increase blood flow into the pelvis, which may cause swelling and rupture, leading to abdominal distension or abdominal pain.

  The muscle contraction movement in sexual life can replace the pelvic area by blood, enter the blood circulation, and reduce the pelvic pressure, thus replacing obesity.

  The disinfection experiment for the female vagina proves that there is an antibacterial substance in the semen, semen cytoplasm, which can kill staphylococcus, streptococcus, pneumococcal and other pathogenic bacteria.

  It can help female genitals from microbial attack.

Women who have no sex for a long time are prone to complications such as vaginitis, endometritis, and salpingitis.

  Effectively reduce the risk of heart disease. The pelvis, limbs, joints, muscles, and spine can be more active, promote blood circulation, and enhance heart function and vital capacity.People with a harmonious life are at least 10% less likely to have a heart attack than those with a disharmony in their sexual life.

How to choose milk yogurt soy milk?

How to choose milk yogurt soy milk?

As people’s health improves, drinking milk becomes the eating habits of people of all ages and all walks of life.

In order to grow taller, the students carrying the schoolbags turn the fresh milk into a drink; the white-collar workers who are nine to five are in the beauty and beauty, and the yogurt of various flavors is prepared anytime and anywhere; the elderly at home want to supplement the calcium, dailySoy milk.

  The nutritional content of milk and milk: 87 grams per 100 grams of milk, protein 3.

3 grams, 4 grams of sputum, 5 grams of carbonic acid, 120 mg of calcium, 93 mg of phosphorus, iron 0.

2 mg, vitamin A 140 international unit, vitamin B10.

04 mg, vitamin B20.

13 mg, niacin 0.

2 mg, vitamin C1 mg.

Can see 69 kcal.

  Soymilk is a kind of drink that the Chinese people love. It is also a kind of nutritious food for all ages. It has the reputation of “plant milk” in Europe and America.

Soymilk is rich in vegetable protein and phospholipids, and also contains vitamins B1, B2 and niacin.

In addition, soy milk also contains iron, calcium and other minerals, especially the calcium contained in it, although not as good as tofu, but higher than any other milk, very suitable for the elderly and babies.

  Fresh soy milk can be used in all seasons.

Drinking soy milk in spring and autumn, nourishing yin and moistening, reconciling yin and yang; summer drinking soy milk, heat and heatstroke prevention, quenching thirst; winter drinking soy milk, warming the stomach, nourishing and tonic.

In fact, in addition to the traditional soy milk, there are many patterns of soy milk, red dates, medlar, mung beans, lily, etc. can be used as ingredients in soy milk.

Yogurt: Flour is easily digested and absorbed by fermenting the flour. The fermentation of milk into yogurt also has the same effect. The fermentation process makes the sugar in the milk, about 20% of the protein is broken down into small molecules (such as galactose and lactic acid, small peptides).Chains and amino acids, etc.).

  The content of strontium in milk is generally 3%-5%.

After fermentation, the fatty acids in the milk can be increased by a factor of 2 compared to the raw milk.

These changes make yogurt more digestible and absorbable, and the replacement of various nutrients is improved.

Yogurt is made from pure milk. In addition to retaining all the nutrients of fresh milk, the lactic acid bacteria ferment in the fermentation process produces a variety of vitamins necessary for human nutrition, such as VB1, VB2, VB6, VB12.

  Yogurt yoghurt is generally also beneficial to bacteria.

Probiotics are a class of initial physiological bacteria that are beneficial to human life and health, such as Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and the like.

At present, there are many kinds of various yoghurt products on the market, such as solidified type, stirring type, and juice type yogurt which is added with different juices, sweet and sour, and suitable for different tastes.

  Regardless of any yogurt, its common feature is the inclusion of lactic acid bacteria.

These lactic acid bacteria secrete substances beneficial to human health when they are propagated inside the human body. Therefore, yogurt has the side effects of side effects: weight loss, health care, and the like.

  However, despite our careful choice, we may not know much about the three majors of fresh milk, yogurt, and soy milk.

It is better to make a comparison first.

  First, the nutritional value of fresh milk The highest fresh milk contains a lot of minerals, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, etc., which play a great role in the development and metabolism of children.

Its unique lactose has a more important nutritional function for the human body, because the galactose obtained after lactose degradation is especially important for the baby’s mental development; instead, lactose can promote the growth and reproduction of lactic acid bacteria in the human body, thereby promoting calcium.And the absorption of other minerals.

  Yogurt is generally made from high-quality fresh milk by lactic acid bacteria, so its nutritional value is slightly inferior to fresh milk, but the difference in nutrients is the same as fresh milk.

  Finally, it is soy milk.

Compared with fresh milk, the protein content of soy milk is similar, but vitamin B2 only accumulates fresh milk, vitamin A, C content is zero, although the iron content is higher, but the calcium content is only half of fresh milk.

  Second, the health benefits are equally divided into autumn colors. Generally speaking, all kinds of active substances contained in milk have a great effect on eliminating foreign bacteria, viruses, repairing damage in our body, dead tissue cells, and maintaining the stability of the internal environment.

  In addition, fresh milk contains a lot of calcium, vitamins and other nutrients.

The lactic acid bacteria contained in the yoghurt can produce a large amount of lactic acid by fermenting lactose, which has a great effect on inhibiting the growth and reproduction of harmful bacteria in the intestine.

  In addition, yogurt also helps digestion and absorption of internal substances in the body, enhancing the body’s immunity.

Soymilk, because it contains high-quality plant protein, traces and vitamins, and its lecithin and vitamin E content exceeds milk, so it can regulate blood lipids for a long time, protect the liver, prevent hardening of the blood vessels and promote thinking.

The trace amounts of isoflavones contained in soybeans also have anti-cancer effects on the human body and prevent health effects such as osteoporosis.  Third, the choice of time is different According to the study of American and British alternative medicine experts, milk contains two kinds of hypnotic substances, one can make people fall asleep quickly, and the other is a substance similar to anesthesia and sedative effect.

  Therefore, if you drink milk in the morning, it is easy for these two substances to affect our cerebral cortex, thus affecting our daytime work and study.

  Therefore, nutrition experts believe that fresh milk is best in the evening or half an hour before going to sleep.

Relatively speaking, the time of adding yogurt and soy milk is not so clear, but if you want to drink yogurt in the morning, in addition to preventing fasting, it is best to drink some boiled water first.

Old people who are used to drinking soy milk are advised to have a drink every morning and evening to lower their cholesterol and prolong their life.

I want to live five long and five long presses.

I want to live five long and five long presses.

The position that can live longer, as long as regular massage, more maintenance, can increase the body’s immunity, in addition to prevent certain diseases, to achieve longevity effect.

This article introduces you to five places, and often massages these five parts, which can achieve the above effects.

The five places are the arm socket, the squat (the nest formed behind the leg when bent), the elbow socket, the waist eye, and the navel.

  First, there is a point on the top of the axillary fossa called the pole spring point. Regular massage can widen the chest and calm the nerves and reconcile the blood.

From the modern medical point of view, the lymphatic tissue at the armpit is very rich, and regular massage can promote blood circulation and improve immunity.

The massage method is as follows: cross up and down on the chest, press the opposite armpits with both hands, massage gently with your fingers, press each time for about 3 minutes; then, raise your left hand, pat the left arm with your right hand palm, then lift your right hand.Use your left hand palm to pat the right arm, each time tapping 30?
50 times, repeated 5 times.

  Second, the armpit armpit is a diamond-shaped depression in the posterior region of the knee. The blood vessels and nerves inside are very rich. They often beat the qi and activating blood to relieve the effect of obstruction.

A very important acupuncture point in the armpit is called the Central Point. It is often massaged and has a good effect on common sciatica, calf fatigue, neck pain, headache and pain.

The massage method is as follows: take the sitting position or the prone position, or ask the family to use both hands to slap the force and continuously beat the two-way armpit.

  Third, the navel navel is the only acupuncture point in the human body that can be touched and can be seen with the eyes, called the god.

It is inlined with twelve meridians, so it has always come to the doctors to think that it is necessary to cure the disease.

Frequently pat the navel, cocoa, An Ning, Ningxin, Shugan Lidan, reconcile qi and blood, Tongli Sanjiao.

The method is as follows: take the sitting position or the supine position, use the left and right hands to slap the palms, and force the front arm to continuously beat the navel 100 times continuously.

Or use hot compress, sputum and other methods to stimulate the navel.

  Fourth, the elbow socket is a triangular depression in front of the elbow joint. It is a place with very dense meridians. It can often penetrate the sputum to ventilate blood, disperse silt and poison.

Take the sitting position or supine position, insert the upper limb straight, the elbow fossa upwards, use the other hand to slap the force, alternately beat each other 100 times.

If the family is helping to tap, you can do it in both directions.

  Fifth, the waist and axillary lumbosacral fossa, commonly known as the “waist eye”, is a depression in the lumbosacral portion of the human body.

The lumbosacral portion bears the weight of the entire upper body, so as the age increases, it is easy to have symptoms such as back pain due to strain on the lumbosacral region.

Often massage the waist and armpits with loose bones to eliminate fatigue.

Sit on the upper body and lean forward, use the left and right hands to slap the palms and slap the waist and squats 5?
10 times.

However, elderly people with severe cardiovascular disease or osteoporosis are not recommended to use the tapping method.

  The above five positions can achieve the effect of health care, as long as you often tap the beat, you can always have unexpected results.

Everyone can polish it. These places are sensitive to us, and the blood vessels and lymphatic tissues are concentrated, which often stimulates the human body!